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Posted by / 02-Jan-2018 09:54

Dating volcanic rock

was published, the earth was "scientifically" determined to be 100 million years old. In 1947, science firmly established that the earth was 3.4 billion years old.

Finally in 1976, it was discovered that the earth is "really" 4.6 billion years old… The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists.

Clarke estimated that 95 percent of crustal rocks are of igneous origin (formed from molten silicate masses, or magmas).

Sedimentary rocks occur as a thin veneer on an igneous or metamorphic basement, except where locally thickened in mountain belts. ) was erupted from Ol Doinyo Lengai, a volcano in northern Tanzania, Africa.

The slow cooling promotes the growth of minerals large enough to be identified visually without the aid of a microscope (called , meaning “visible”).

On the other hand, magma erupted at the surface is chilled so quickly that the individual minerals have little or no chance to grow.

Igneous rock, any of various crystalline or glassy rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of molten earth material.

The coarser pyroclastic materials accumulate around the erupting volcano, but the finest pyroclasts can be found as thin layers located hundreds of kilometres from the opening.

Because of the limited occurrence of such carbonate-rich igneous rocks, however, the following discussion will consider the chemistry of silicate rocks only.

The major ) are depleted in the rocks that have a silica content of less than about 45 weight percent, but, above 45 percent, calcium oxide can be as high as 10 percent; this amount decreases gradually as the silica increases.

Rocks formed from the cooling and solidification of magma deep within the crust are distinct from those erupted at the surface mainly owing to the differences in physical and chemical conditions prevalent in the two environments.

Within the Earth’s deep crust the temperatures and pressures are much higher than at its surface; consequently, the hot magma cools slowly and crystallizes completely, leaving no trace of the liquid magma.

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Both the physical geologists and paleontologists could point to evidence that much more time was needed to produce what they saw in the stratigraphic and fossil records.

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